ការសិក្សាផ្នែកបុរាណវិទ្យានិងវិទ្យាសាស្រ្ត បានយល់ស្របគ្នាថាការផលិតកុលាលភាជន៍ខ្មែរនៅតំបន់អង្គរចាប់ផ្តើមពីសតវត្សរ៍ទី៩ គ.ស

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ក្រោយចំណាយពេលជាង២០ឆ្នាំលើការសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវកុលាលភាជន៍ខ្មែរទាំងផ្នែកបុរាណវិទ្យា និងការវិភាគបែបវិទ្យាសាស្ត្រ អ្នកស្រាវជ្រាវបានសន្និដ្ឋានដូចគ្នាថា ការផលិតកុលាលភាជន៍ក្នុងតំបន់អង្គរ បានចាប់ផ្តើមពីដើមសតវត្សទី៩ គ.ស.។ ការសន្និដ្ឋានដូច្នេះ គឺក្រោយពីអ្នកស្រាវជ្រាវបានធ្វើកំណាយទៅលើស្ថានីយឡដុតកុលាលភាជន៍ចំនួន១០ ក្នុងតំបន់រមណីយដ្ឋានអង្គរ ព្រមទាំងបានយកបំណែកកុលាលភាជន៍ទៅវិភាគនៅមន្ទីរពិសោធន៍បរទេសដូចជាប្រទេសជប៉ុន និងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិកជាដើម។

លោកបណ្ឌិត អ៊ា ដារិទ្ធ អនុប្រធាន មជ្ឈមណ្ឌលអន្តរជាតិស្រាវជ្រាវនិងតម្កល់ឯកសារអង្គរនៃអាជ្ញាធរជាតិអប្សរា បានមានប្រសាសន៍ថា ការស្រាវជ្រាវឡដុតកុលាលភាជន៍ខ្មែរត្រូវបានបែងចែកជាពីរដំណាក់កាល៖

ឡនៅដំណាក់កាលទី១ ផលិតឡើងប្រហែលជានៅក្នុងសតវត្សរ៍ទី៩ដល់ទី១០នៃគ.ស.។ នេះជាការស្រាវជ្រាវតាមបែបបុរាណវិទ្យាដែលប្រៀបធៀបឡ ជាមួយនឹងបំណែកកុលាលភាជន៍ ដែលបានមកពីកន្លែងប្រើប្រាស់ដែលរកឃើញនៅស្ថានីយផ្សេងៗទៀតនៅតំបន់អង្គរ។ ក្នុងដំណាក់កាលទី១ ឡមានរូបរាងច្បាស់លាស់ ចែកជាបីផ្នែកគឺ ប្រអប់ភ្លើងសម្រាប់ដាក់ឧស កន្លែងសម្រាប់ដាក់កុលាលភាជន៍ និងបំពង់ផ្សែងនៅខាងលើ។ ឡក្នុងដំណាក់កាលទី១នេះមានទំហំតូច ទទឹងប្រមាណ១,៥០ម៉ែត្រដល់៣,៦ម៉ែត្រ បណ្តោយប្រវែង៥ម៉ែត្រ ដល់៩ម៉ែត្រប៉ុណ្ណោះ។ នៅចំកណ្តាលនៃឡមានសសរ៥ សម្រាប់ទ្រដំបូលឡ។ ឡប្រភេទនេះផលិតវត្ថុតូចៗពណ៌បៃតងដូចជា ខួច ដន្លាប់ កោដ្ឋ ចាន និងកូនក្រឡជាដើម និងសម្ភារៈធំជាងនេះបន្តិច ប៉ុន្តែគ្មានស្រទាប់រលោង ដូចជាក្រឡ ក្អម និងពាងដាក់ទឹកជាដើម។

ចំណែកកុលាលភាជន៍ដែលផលិតក្នុងដំណាក់កាលទី២គឺប្រភេទកុលាលភាជន៍ពណ៌ត្នោតមានក្រឡ ពាង ក្អម ក្បឿង និងភាជន៍រូបសត្វជាដើម។ រចនាសម្ព័ន្ធឡនៅដំណាក់កាលទី២ មានទំហំធំវែងជាងដំណាក់កាលទី១។ ដំណាក់កាលទី២នេះ បានចាប់ផ្តើមពីសតវត្សរ៍ទី១១ដល់១៥ នៃគ.ស. (ចុងសម័យអង្គរ)។ ឡមានការវិវត្តដែលមានប្រវែងរហូតដល់បណ្តោយ២១ម៉ែត្រ ទទឹងមានប្រវែង៣,២ម៉ែត្រ។ កន្លែងដាក់កុលាលភាជន៍(Ceramic)មាន៤បន្ទប់ ខណ្ឌដោយរណ្តៅ៣កន្លែង សម្រាប់ដាក់ឧសបញ្ចូលដើម្បីឲ្យភ្លើងឆេះខ្លាំងក្តៅសព្វធ្វើឲ្យកុលាលភាជន៍មានកម្រឹតរឹងខ្លាំងហើយមានស្រទាប់រលោងស្អិតជាប់គ្នាល្អ។ ដំណាក់កាលទី២នេះខ្មែរបុរាណនិយមផលិតកុលាលភាជន៍ពណ៌ត្នោត ហើយគុណភាពរឹងមាំល្អ។

លោកឆាយ រចនា ប្រធានការិយាល័យសិក្សាកុលាលភាជន៍នៃមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលអន្តរជាតិស្រាវជ្រាវ និងតម្កល់ឯកសារអង្គរបានឲ្យដឹងថា ដើម្បីឲ្យដឹងអំពីអាយុកាល និងសមាសធាតុផ្សំ យើងត្រូវយកធ្យូង និងបំណែកកុលាលភាជន៍ដែលបានមកពីធ្វើកំណាយក្នុងឡទៅពិសោធនៅបរទេស ដូចជាប្រទេសជប៉ុន អាមេរិក និងប្រទេសសិង្ហបុរីជាដើម។ ថ្មីៗនេះអាជ្ញាធរអប្សរាបានសហការជាមួយសកលវិទ្យាល័យ New England ប្រទេសអូស្ត្រាលីដើម្បីសិក្សាអំពីអាយុកាល សមាសធាតុផ្សំនៅក្នុងកុលាលភសាជន៍។

យោងតាមការសិក្សារស្រាវជ្រាវកុលាលភាជន៍ខ្មែរតាមបែបវិទ្យាសាស្រ្ត គេអាចបែងចែកការផលិតកុលាលភាជន៍ជា២ដំណាក់កាល គឺកុលាលភាជន៍ពណ៌បៃតងចាប់ផ្តើមផលិតនៅចុងសតវត្សរ៍ទី៨ គ.ស. ឬដើមសតវត្សរ៍ទី៩ គ.ស. រហូតមកដល់ចុងសតវត្សរ៍១៣ គ.ស.។ រីឯកុលាលភាជន៍មានពណ៌ត្នោតចាប់ផ្តើមផលិតនៅចុងសតវត្សរ៍ទី១១ដល់សតវត្សរ៍ទី១៥ គ.ស.។ លោក រចនា បញ្ជាក់ថារបកគំហើញតាមរយៈការសិក្សាតាមបែបបុរាណវិទ្យា និងវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តពុំមានគម្លាតខុសគ្នាខ្លាំងនោះឡើយ។ វិទ្យាសាស្រ្តផ្តល់ព័ត៌មានឲ្យអ្នកស្រាវជ្រាវដឹងអំពីការចាប់ផ្តើម ផលិត និងបញ្ចប់ទៅវិញ និងលក្ខណៈខុសគ្នាពីឡមួយទៅឡមួយទៀត។ ទិន្នន័យនៃការស្រាវជ្រាវតាមរបៀបទាំង២យ៉ាងកាន់តែធ្វើអោយយើងដឹងច្បាស់ថា នៅសម័យអង្គរ ខ្មែរបុរាណបានផលិតកុលាលភាជន៍ប៉ុន្មានប្រភេទ ព្រោះកុលាលភាជន៍ជាវត្ថុសំខាន់សម្រាប់បង្ហាញជីវភាពប្រចាំថ្ងៃដែលប្រើប្រាស់នៅសម័យនោះ។

បច្ចុប្បន្ន ការស្រាវជ្រាវកុលាលភាជន៍ខ្មែរនៅតែបន្តដោយអ្នកជំនាញខ្មែរសហការជាមួយប្រទេសជប៉ុន ធ្វើកំណាយស្រាវជ្រាវឡ បែបបុរាណវិទ្យានៅតំបន់ខាងកើតអង្គរ ដែលផលិតកុលាលភាជន៍ពណ៌ត្នោត។ ជាមួយគ្នានេះ ក្រុមការងារក៏ធ្វើសហប្រតិបត្តិការណ៍ជាមួយស្ថាប័នអន្តរជាតិ រួមមានស្ថាប័នមកពីសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក និងអូស្រ្តាលី ដើម្បីធ្វើវិភាគវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តទៅលើកុលាលភាជន៍ដើម្បីដឹងពីអាយុកាល ដឹងអំពីធាតុផ្សំ និងដឹងពីកន្លែងប្រើប្រាស់ ដែលនឹងអាចធ្វើឲ្យយើងដឹងពីអាណាចក្រខ្មែររីកចម្រើនដល់កន្លែងណាខ្លះតាមរយៈការរកឃើញកុលាលភាជន៍ខ្មែរនៅកន្លែងទាំងអស់នោះ៕









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